“Agenda 2063. The Africa We Want”, a plan for Africa’s structural transformation, was agreed upon by the African Union Golden Jubilee of May 2013. The Agenda 2063 approach is to explore how the continent should effectively learn from the lessons of the past, build on the progress now underway and strategically exploit all possible opportunities available in the immediate and medium term, so as to ensure positive socioeconomic transformation within the next 50 years.
The Blue Economy is included In the Plan under Aspiration 1. A Prosperous Africa Based on Inclusive Growth and Sustainable Development. Under section 14 it says:
14. Africa’s Blue economy, which is three times the size of its landmass, shall be a major contributor to continental transformation and growth, advancing knowledge on marine and aquatic biotechnology, the growth of an Africa-wide
shipping industry, the development of sea, river and lake transport and fishing; and exploitation and beneficiation of deep sea mineral and other resources.
Furthermore, it takes on board climate change and goes on to state in sections 15 and 16:
15. Whilst Africa at present contributes less than (5%) of global carbon emissions, it bears the brunt of the impact of climate. Africa shall address the global challenge of climate change by prioritizing adaptation in all our actions, drawing upon skills of diverse disciplines and with adequate support (affordable technology development and transfer, capacity building, financial and technical resources) to ensure implementation of actions for the survival of the most vulnerable
populations, including islands states, and for sustainable development and shared prosper
16. Africa will participate in global efforts for climate change mitigation that support and broaden the policy space for sustainable development on the continent. Africa shall continue to speak one voice and unity of purpose in advancing its position and interests on climate change.
The African Development Bank says that to achieve the Agenda 2063, countries will need to be aware of emerging changes and trends and seize opportunities.
In looking at the next 50 years, the following key drivers of change have been identified:
• Globalization and changing structure of global markets, with expanding middle class and markedly rising importance of developing countries in global trade.
• New technologies and innovation, especially in health, agriculture and energy.
• Changing rules governing global trade and finance, including the role of aid.
• Physical environment – examples include climate change; land and water scarcity; pervasive infrastructure deficit.
• Human resources – delayed demographic transition, gender dividend, skills development, and the continued heavy burden of disease.
• Private sector development and democratization.
The African Development banks says these changes will bring about accelerated urbanization and rising migration. Agricultural productivity will have to increase, while the role of natural resources will remain prominent. Structural transformation will be multifaceted and will demand considerable effort from leaders and their people. If there is diligence and dedication there will be strong, sustained and inclusive growth in decades to come. Strategic policy leadership will be needed at all levels and segments of the society, supported by well-functioning institutions and an enabling business environment. Strategic policy leadership for good policy-making is needed at the national, regional and global levels as well as in the government, business and civil society spheres.